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What was the Art Deco style originally known as?

Style Moderne
Streamlined Moderne
Arte Moderne.
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Art Deco Collectibles: Fashionable Objets from the Jazz Age
by Rodney Capstick-Dale &
Diana Capstick-Dale
 

In the 1920s and 1930s the Art Deco style influenced everything from art and architecture, interiors and furnishings, automobiles and boats to the small, personal objects that were part of everyday life: Featuring high-quality photography and vintage illustrations and ephemera, this book brings these objects to life in exquisite detail for the first time. The objects in this themed book encompass the Deco style at its most alluring, as well as the modernity, excitement, and social revolution of the Jazz Age.

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Cups Runneth Over at Coffeehouses
by Bob Brooke

 

A crystal chandelier glistens in the afternoon sun streaming through the lace-curtained windows. A young waitress balances a tray of pastries and coffees on one hand, while her patrons read the afternoon papers to the quiet strains of Mozart's Symphony Number 9 in G-major.



The atmosphere is quiet and reserved. The sweet smell of chocolate and fresh-brewed coffee mix with the heady smoke of European cigarettes. The waitress delicately sets a large glass filled with dense coffee and a dollop of ice cream topped with an Everest- like mound of whipped cream on a customer’s table. Along with all of Vienna’s wonders are its hundreds of coffeehouses.

When most people hear the word “coffeehouse,” they usually imagine a cozy Viennese café serving coffees and espresso, with comfy sofas and chairs for customers to lounge while they sip.

Islamic Beginnings
The first coffeehouses in the Islamic world, qahveh khaneh—Persian for coffeehouse— appeared in Damascus, Syria. These Ottoman coffeehouses also appeared in Mecca, in the Arabian Peninsula in the 15th century, then spread to the Ottoman Empire's capital of Istanbul in the 16th century. Coffeehouses became popular meeting places where people gathered to drink coffee, have conversations, play board games such as chess and backgammon, listen to stories and music, and discuss news and politics. They became known as "schools of wisdom" for the type of clientele they attracted.



However, imams in Mecca became concerned about coffeehouses because they believed they were places for political gatherings and drinking, which led to them being banned between 1512 and 1524. But coffee had its way, becoming a part of the daily ritual of most people, which made it hard to enforce the bans.

Until 1555, coffeehouses didn’t exist throughout the Ottoman Empire and especially in Constantinople. Around this time, A man named Hakam from Aleppo and a wag called Shams from Damascus came to the city. Each opened a large shop in the district called Tahtakale and began to sell coffee.

From Arabia to Vienna
Legend says that the first coffeehouse in Constantinople was the Kiva Han. The Turks liked their coffee strong, black, and unfiltered, usually brewed in an ibrik. They took coffee very seriously. It was so important during that time that it was legal in Turkey for a woman to divorce her husband if he couldn’t supply her with enough coffee.

But how did coffee make its way from Constantinople all the way to Vienna? The story goes that when the Polish army defeated the Turks in the Battle of Vienna in 1683, they left sacks of green coffee beans behind when they fled the city. The victorious Polish king Jan III Sobieski claimed the beans as spoils of war and gave them to one of his officers, Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki, a Ukrainian cossack and Polish diplomat of Ruthenian descent who used the beans to open the first coffeehouse in Vienna. He was also the first to serve coffee with milk.



In reality, Johannes Diodato, an Armenian merchant, opened the first registered coffeehouse in 1685. By the second half of the 18th century, coffee drinking had become commonplace in Austria.

Over time, a special coffeehouse culture developed in Habsburg Vienna. Writers, artists, musicians, intellectuals, bon vivants and their financiers met in the coffeehouses, and the coffeehouses served new varieties of coffee. Patrons also played cards or chess, worked, read, thought, composed, discussed, argued, observed and just chatted. And people obtained a lot of information because local and foreign newspapers were freely available to all customers. This form of coffeehouse culture spread throughout the Habsburg Empire in the 19th century.



Patrons in coffeehouses throughout Central Europe also discussed scientific theories, as well as worked on political plans and artistic projects. James Joyce enjoyed his coffee in a Viennese coffee house on the Adriatic in Trieste, then and now the main port for coffee and coffee processing in Italy and Central Europe. From there, the Viennese Kapuziner coffee developed into today's world-famous cappuccino.

And on to England
The first coffeehouse in England opened in Oxford between 1650 and 1651 by "Jacob the Jew." A second competing coffeehouse opened across the street in 1654, by "Cirques Jobson, the Jew" (now Queen's Lane Coffee House).



Pasqua Rosée, an Armenian by the name Harutiun Vartian and the servant of Daniel Edwards, a trader in Turkish goods, opened the first coffeehouse in England in St. Michael's Alley in Cornhill, London. Edwards imported the coffee and assisted Rosée in setting up the establishment which became known as "The Turk's Head."



British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company brought coffee into England in the 17th century. By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses throughout England, but there were many disruptions in the progressive movement of coffeehouses between the 1660s and 1670s. During the Enlightenment, these early English coffeehouses became gathering places used for deep religious and political discussions. This practice became so common, and potentially subversive, that Charles II made an attempt to crush coffeehouses in 1670s.

As government officials believed coffeehouses were places where anti-government gossip could easily spread, Queen Mary and the London City magistrates tried to prosecute people who frequented coffeehouses as they were liable to "spread false and seditious reports." William III's privy council also suppressed Jacobite sympathizers in the 1680s and 1690s in coffeehouses as these were the places they believed harbored plotters against their regimes.

English coffeehouses became known as "penny universities" because of the scholars and students who paid a penny to enter and sit in on a lecture or have access to books or print news. Coffeehouses boosted the popularity of print news culture and helped the growth of various financial markets including insurance, stocks, and auctions.

Coffeehouses also became meeting places where businessmen could exchange news. Lloyd's of London had its origins in a coffeehouse run by Edward Lloyd, where underwriters of ship insurance met to do business. By 1739, there were 551 coffeehouses in London; each attracted a particular clientele divided by occupation or attitude, such as Tories and Whigs, wits and stockjobbers, merchants and lawyers, booksellers and authors, men of fashion or the "cits" of the old city center.



Jonathan's Coffee House in 1698 saw the listing of stock and commodity prices that evolved into the London Stock Exchange. Auctions in salesrooms attached to coffeehouses provided the start for the great auction houses of Sotheby's and Christie's.



It was in an English coffeehouse that customers used the word "tips" for gratuities. A jar with a sign reading, "To Insure Prompt Service" sat on the counter. Customers put a coin in the jar to be served quickly.

European Coffeehouses
In Germany, coffeehouses first appeared in North Sea ports, including Wuppertal-Ronsdorf in 1673 and Hamburg in 1677. Initially, this new beverage was written in the English form “coffee,” but during the 18th century, the Germans gradually adopted the French word café, then slowly changed the spelling to Kaffee, which is the present word. In the 18th century the popularity of coffee gradually spread and became a favorite drink of the ruling classes. Though the Great Elector, Frederick William of Brandenburg, drank coffee at his court as early as 1675, Berlin's first public coffeehouse didn’t open until 1721.

Italy also had its coffeehouses. Many of the oldest opened in the 18th century, including Caffè Florian in Venice, Antico Caffè Greco in Rome, Caffè Pedrocchi in Padua, Caffè dell'Ussero in Pisa, and Caffè Fiorio in Turin. Another form of café was the coffee bar, a place where patrons stood at a bar while drinking espresso. These gained popularity in northern Italy.

Pasqua Rosée, the same person who opened the first coffeehouse in London, also established the first one in Paris in 1672 and held a citywide coffee monopoly until Procopio Cutò, his apprentice, opened the Café Procope in 1686. This coffeehouse still exists today and was a popular meeting place of the French Enlightenment. Voltaire, Rousseau, and Denis Diderot frequented it, and it was also the birthplace of the Encyclopédie, the first modern encyclopedia.

Irish Coffeehouses Encouraged Reading
In the 18th century, Dublin coffeehouses functioned as early reading centers and the emergence of circulation and subscription libraries that provided greater access to printed material for the public. The interconnectivity of the coffeehouses and every facet of the print trade encouraged the incorporation of printing, publishing, selling, and viewing of newspapers, pamphlets and books on the premises, most notably in the case of Dick's Coffee House, owned by Richard Pue; thus contributing to a culture of reading and increased literacy. These coffeehouses were a social magnet where different classes of society came together to discuss topics covered by the newspapers and pamphlets. Most coffeehouses of the 18th century would eventually be equipped with their own printing presses or incorporate a book shop.



The American Coffeehouse
After the colonization of America, the coffeehouse quickly followed. The role of the American coffeehouse was the same as those in England. The first coffeehouse in America opened in Boston in 1676. However, Americans didn’t begin choosing coffee over tea until the Boston Tea Party. After the Revolutionary War, Americans went back to drinking tea until after the War of 1812 when they began importing high-quality coffee from Latin America and expensive inferior-quality tea from American shippers instead of Great Britain. Whether serving coffee or tea, coffeehouses served as places to conduct business. In the 1780s, Merchant's Coffee House located on Wall Street in New York City was where the organization of the Bank of New York and the New York Chamber of Commerce took place. The Tontine Coffee House, opened in 1792 in New York was the original location for the New York Stock Exchange because so much business was conducted there.



Espresso Arrives
Until the 1940s, coffeehouses served regular coffee. Then came espresso. In 1946, Gaggia invented the commercial piston espresso machine, which was far easier to use and safer than earlier models. The Gaggia coffee bar in Italy was the first location to use these machines and to offer espresso along with regular coffee. The modern age of coffeehouses was born.

More than anything, coffeehouses since their first establishment have always been a place of social interaction—a place where people meet to talk and exchange the news of their day, but mostly to enjoy a good cup of coffee.


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